Used when an individual has more than one name; abbreviation version of “also known as”; “alias”.
Assault with a Dangerous Weapon — anviolent conflict in which the a person uses any of a variety of weapons to injure or threaten injury. Common instruments that satisfy this threshold include knife, gun, shodfoot (kicking), hammer, rock, furniture, etc.
Person who is in involved in a criminal act but not necessarily present at the crime scene:threshold acts include aiding, abetting, commanding, or counseling another in a crime. Other terms include “accomplice” or “abettor”.
Aggravation (e.g. aggravated assault, aggravated battery)
A factor that substantially magnifies the severity of an offense.
To detain and hold an individual with lawful authority in order to charge him with a criminal complaint.
A credible attempt or threat to harm another person which causes the victim to fear injury or bodily harm.
Attempt Robbery/Attempted Robberies
Criminal actions that show attempts/intent to steal from another; it is not necessary to complete the action or possess another’s property to be charged with this offense.
BOLO (Be on the Lookout)
Law enforcementterm alerting others to seek involved parties, often followed by physical descriptions of accomplices or persons of interest.
An instrument that determines the Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) by means of measuring respiration.
A sum of money or other payment offered in exchange for influencing a person’s views or conduct. Bribes paid to police may be sought to protect illegal activity, obtain information on criminal investigations, remove criminal files, or alter court testimony.
Burglary, First Degree
Attempting to steal from another by entering a dwelling unauthorized/uninvited while the occupant is present.
Burglary, Second Degree
Attempting to steal from another by entering a dwelling unauthorized/uninvited.
Burning One’s Own Property with Intent to Defraud
Burning a property, building or vehicle of one’s own in order to defraud another.
Child Sexual Abuse, First Degree
Sexual acts with a child under the age of 16 when the perpetrator is at least four years older than the victim.
A written record of a minor offense issued by police officers that specifies a standard penalty yet allows for appeal of that penalty (e.g. traffic ticket).
A court filing seeking financial damages or restitution for a financial injury to the complainant (e.g. replacement cost for lost property).
A drug or substance regulated by federal or District of Columbia law, including opiates.
Breach of behavioral standards for police officers or other officials that includes abuse of authority for financial or personal advancement.
Municipal law enforcement with county jurisdiction whose role is more limited than sheriffs’.They comprise about 1 percent of local departments.
A legal processin which the state accuses an individual with breaking a lawand in which the defendant faces a fine or jail time if convicted.
When police are called to intervene in an escalating dispute between two or more members of a family, a household, or others in an intimate relationship.
Actual or threatened violence between two members of a family, householdor people in an intimate relationship.
Distribution of a Controlled Substance
Providing or attempting to provide a quantity of drugs to another.
Driving Under the Influence
Operating a motor vehicle while under the influence of alcohol (.08 percent blood alcohol content as measured by Breathalyzer) or drugs.
Physical characteristics that are shared by people with the same geographic ancestry (e.g. Latin, Eastern European, Asian).
The process of transferring between states a person wanted for criminal prosecution or imprisonment.
A crime based on intolerance for the victim’s race, religion, ethnicity or sexual orientation.
Societal decay due to residents’ behaviors including public drinking, gang activity, street harassment, drug sale and use, noise, and commercial sex.
A grand jury’s decision, forwarded to the court, charging an individual with a crime based on evidence provided.
To threaten another in order to influence his behavior. The threat may include physical harm, restraint, confinement, or accusations of crime (even if true).
A facility for processing and holding those accused of a crime, including for photographingand fingerprinting.
Modus Operandi, (Latin) meaning method of operation, the typical way an individual goes about committing a crime. (E.g.wearing dark glasses when robbing a bank).
Killinganotherwillfully or with a conscious disregard of an extreme risk of death or serious bodily injury,and in which mitigating factors (e.g. acting in the heat of passion or by adequate provocation) precludes a determination that the killing was malicious.
An unintentional or accidental killing without justification or excuse (e.g. in a traffic accident).
Also known as city police,this category comprises the majority of American law enforcement.
Murder, First Degree
Killing with specific intent, premeditation and deliberation, without self-defense or mitigation.
Murder, First Degree Felony
Killing a person while committing a felony, including arson, sexual abuse in the first degree, child sexual abuse in the first degree, cruelty to children in the first degree, mayhem, robbery, kidnapping, first degree burglary while armed with or wielding a dangerous weapon, burglary in the second degree while armed with or using a dangerous weapon, or distribution of a controlled substance.
Murder, Second Degree
Killing with intent to kill or seriously injure, or disregard of the known risk of death or serious bodily injury to that person, and in the absence of self-defense or mitigation.
Death resulting from careless, reckless, or negligent operation of a motor vehicle.
An employeeof a government (municipal, city, regional, or state)who has the authority to enforce the law and may use coercive force when carrying out normal duties.
Possession of a Controlled Substance with Intent to Distribute
Willingly having a drug classified as a controlled substancein conjunction withthe desire to transfer it to another person.
Where known facts and circumstances, of a reasonably trustworthy nature, are sufficient to justify a man of reasonable caution or prudence in the belief that a certain person has committed, is committing, or is about to commit a criminal act.
An attorney who brings a criminal action against va person in the name of the government.
Acategory of people determined by shared physical and biological traits (e.g. Caucasian, African-Americans, Asians, Latins).
Factors that combine to lead a law enforcement official to narrow the field of possible suspects in a criminal act but which don’t meet the criteria for an arrestable offense.
A robbery in which the suspect coerces the victim without physical force or possession of a weapon.
Robbery Hold Up Gun (Robbery HUG, or RHUG)
A robbery in which the victim believed he saw the suspect in possession of a firearm.
Robbery Hold Up Knife
A robbery in which the victim believed he saw the suspect in possession of a knife.
A judge’s authorizing an officer to search a specific area (residence, office, vehicle) for and seize property that may be evidence in a criminal complaint or trial.
Sexual Abuse, First Degree
Engaging in or causing another person to engage in or submit to a sexual act (1) by using force against that other person; or (2) by threatening or placing that other person in reasonable fear that any person will be subjected to death, bodily injury, or kidnapping; or (3) after rendering that other person unconscious; or (4) after administering to that other person a drug or intoxicant.
Sexual Abuse, Second Degree
Engaging in or causing another person to engage in or submit to a sexual act (1) by threatening or placing that other person in reasonable fear, or (2) where the person knows or has reason to know that the other person is unable to understand the nature of the conduct, or unable to decline participating in the sexual act, or unable to communicate unwillingness to engage in that sexual act.
(1) Theft by concealment of an item for sale, or (2) removing or altering a price tag or other identification mark imprinted on or attached to property for sale; or (3) switching containers of items for sale.
Statute of Limitations
Thefinite period of time in which to bring lawsuits or criminal prosecutions for many categories of crime. Does not apply to murder, involuntary manslaughter, reckless homicide, treason, arson, or forgery.
Taking or using the property of another person with the intent of depriving the owner of the right to the property.
A citation issued by a police officer for a traffic violation that may be settled with payment of a fine or by appearing in court to plead or appeal.
Intentionally entering or attempting to enter a building without permission (e.g. trespassing).
Inappropriate language, particularly racial and ethnic slurs, when used by police officers.
Vehicle Identification Number, a unique identifier assigned to vehicles during the manufacturing process.
A judge’s order directing a law enforcement officer to arrest a person and bring them to court.
One who testifies as to what they have seen, heard, or otherwise observed and who is not necessarily a party to the action.